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1) The authors gratefully thank the following for their contributions to this paper: Josephine Chung, Kim Pierce, Scott Scriver, and Elisabeth Boehnen for their research assistance and Dawn Duren, Jan Blakeslee, Elizabeth Evanson for their editorial and typing assistance.
F. Lamb-Parker, J
2) The NHES survey included an early childhood program participation component in its 1995 survey. Parents of 14,000 children from birth through third grade were asked about their use of a wide variety of childcare and early education arrangements.
3) According to several studies, low-income families use more of certain types of child care and less of others than do families with more income or more education (see Figure 6).
According to the study by the National Academy (Phillips, 1995) low-income families “are more likely to rely on relatives and less likely to rely on center-based arrangements. . . Grandparents are an especially prominent source of child care for low-income, preschool-age children: 17 percent are cared for mainly by grandparents; 29 percent get some care from a grandparent. The child care arrangements of low-income families also vary greatly by household type and parental employment status. . . Single employed mothers rely to a much greater extent on non-relative arrangements (notably family day care homes and centers) than do other types of low-income families. In addition, among low-income families, about 24 percent of children under age 5 are in more than one supplemental arrangement on a regular basis (Brayfield et al., 1993). Reliance on multiple arrangements varies, however, from 14 percent of low-income preschoolers with two parents to 31 percent of those in single-mother families and 45 percent of those in employed, single-mother families”(Phillips, 1995, Chapter 2).